Protein structure and gene structure of Tim-3
The gene that encodes Tim-3 HAVCR2 lies within 5q33.2 within the genome of humans. This is a region that has been associated with asthma allergies, asthma, and autoimmunity. You can know more about anti-TIM 3/HAVCR2 antibody picoband online.
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It includes the antigen-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain and a mucin-like domain that has N-linked glycosylation and O-linked glycosylation, a transmembrane-associated domain, and the cytoplasmic area with tyrosine phosphorylation motifs.
Tim-3 was first discovered as an immunosuppressive molecule that was found on the Th1 T Helper (Th1) cells later identified on cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) macrophages and monocytes as well natural killer cells (NKs) along with the dendritic cells(DCs).
Ligands and the functions of Tim-3
Tim-3 plays a crucial function in preventing both innate and adaptive immune responses. With respect to different functions and types of cells, Tim-3 binds to certain ligands.
The expression of Tim-3 is high on T cells that are effector T cells is a sign of T cells are exhausted, which is evidenced by decreased proliferation, TNF-a, and IFN-g release.
When activated T cells are present, CEACAM1 and Tim-3 are combined as a heterodimer that can reduce T cell function and decrease its immunity against tumors 13The anti-tumor immunity of T cells is reduced.
Tim-3+ Tregs play a role in shaping the tumor-immune microenvironment (TIME) through facilitating the growth of exhausted T cells with CD8+ as well as limiting the expansion of pro-inflammatory cytokine secreting CD4+ and the CD8+ cells.